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proofreading speed

Cambridge Proofreading LLC is a registered company in Illinois, U.S.A. We have served over 64, clients in + countries. We recommend that you read our blog post about avoiding scam proofreading services and carefully review who you trust with your documents. Dec 03,  · see proofreading speed in my survey article Dec 3, I conducted a survey and wrote an article on this topic a few years which also contained info on editing/proofreading speeds. Test yourself. Page owner: Standards director Anyone can be a proofreader, can't they? How hard can it be? All they do is find typos, don't they? See for yourself!


Words per hour when proofreading (Proofreading / Editing / Reviewing)


Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art. A proof is a typeset version of copy or a manuscript page. They often contain typos introduced through human error. Traditionally, a proofreader looks at an increment of text on the copy and then compares it to the corresponding typeset increment, and then marks any errors sometimes called 'line edits' using standard proofreaders' marks.

Proofs are then returned to the typesetter for correction. Correction-cycle proofs will typically have one descriptive term, such as 'bounce', proofreading speed, 'bump', or 'revise' unique to the department or organization and used for clarity to the strict exclusion of any other. It is a common practice for 'all' such corrections, no proofreading speed how slight, to be sent again to a proofreader to be checked and initialed, thus establishing the principle of higher responsibility for proofreaders as compared to their typesetters or artists.

The first reads the text aloud literally as it appears, usually at a comparatively fast but uniform rate, proofreading speed. The second reader follows along and marks any pertinent differences between what is read and what was typeset. This method is appropriate for large quantities of boilerplate text where it is assumed that the number of errors will be comparatively small.

Experienced copy holders employ various codes and verbal short-cuts that accompany their reading, proofreading speed. The spoken word 'digits', for example, proofreading speed, means that the numbers about to be read are not words spelled out; and 'in a hole' can mean that the upcoming segment of text is within parentheses. A 'thump' or 'screamer' made with a finger on the table represents the initial capcommaperiodor similar obvious attribute being read simultaneously.

Thus the line of text He said the address proofreading speed Central Blvd. Mutual understanding is the only guiding principle, so codes evolve as opportunity permits. In the above example, proofreading speed thumps after 'buluhvuhd' might be acceptable to proofreaders familiar with the text. A single proofreader checks a proof in the traditional manner but then passes it on to a second reader who repeats the process, proofreading speed.

Both initial the proof. Note that with both copy holding and double reading, responsibility for a given proof is necessarily shared by two individuals. Many publishers have their own proprietary typesetting systems, [3] while their customers use commercial programs such as Word. Before the data in a Word file can be published, it must be converted into a format used by the publisher.

The end product is usually called a conversion. If a customer has already proofread the contents of a file before submitting it to a publisher, there will be no reason for another proofreader to re-read it from the copy although this additional service may be requested and paid for.

Instead, proofreading speed, the publisher is held responsible only for formatting errors, such as typeface, proofreading speed width, and alignment of columns in tables ; and production errors such as text inadvertently deleted, proofreading speed.

To simplify matters further, a given conversion will usually be assigned a specific proofreading speed. Given typesetters of sufficient skill, experienced proofreaders familiar with their typesetters' work can accurately scan their pages without reading the text for errors that neither they nor their typesetters are responsible for. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication. Before it is typeset, copy is often marked up by an editor or customer with various instructions as proofreading speed typefaces, art, and layout.

Often these individuals will consult a style guide of varying degrees of complexity and completeness. Such guides are usually produced in-house by the staff or supplied by the customer, and should be distinguished from professional references such as The Chicago Manual of Stylethe AP StylebookThe Elements of Styleproofreading speed, or Gregg Reference Manual. When appropriate, proofreading speed, proofreaders may mark errors in accordance with their house guide instead of the copy when the two conflict.

Where this is the case, proofreading speed, the proofreader may justifiably be considered a copy editor. Checklists are commonly employed in proof-rooms where there is sufficient uniformity of product to distill some or all of its components to a list format. They may also act as a training tool for new hires. Checklists are never comprehensive, however: proofreaders still have to find all errors not mentioned or described on them, thus limiting their usefulness.

The educational level of proofreaders, in general, is on a par with that of their co-workers. Typesetters, proofreading speed, graphic artists, and word processors rarely need to have a proofreading speed degreeand a perusal of online job listings for proofreaders will show proofreading speed although listings may specify a degree for proofreaders, many do not, proofreading speed.

Experience is discounted at the outset in preference to a credential, indicating a relatively low starting wage appropriate for younger applicants. In these kinds of multitasking desktop-publishing environments, human resources departments may even classify proofreading as a clerical skill generic to literacy itself. Proofreading speed this occurs, it is not unusual for proofreaders to find themselves guaranteeing the accuracy of higher-paid co-workers. In contrast, printerspublishersproofreading speed, advertising agencies and law firms tend not to require a degree specifically.

In these professionally demanding single-tasking environments, the educational divide surrounds the production department instead of the company itself. Promotion is rare for these proofreaders because they tend to be valued more for their present skill set than for any potential leadership ability. They are often supervised by a typesetter also without a degree, or by an administrative manager with little or no production experience who delegates proofreading speed responsibilities to a typesetter.

Proofreading speed many commercial and college-level proofreading courses of varying quality can be found online, practical job training for proofreaders has declined along with its status as a craft. Proofreading speed books are also available that instruct the basics to their readers. Such tools of self-preparation have by and large replaced formal workplace instruction. Proofreader applicants are tested primarily on their spellingspeed, and skill in finding errors in the sample text.

Toward proofreading speed end, proofreading speed, they may be given a list of ten or twenty classically difficult words and a proofreading test, both tightly timed. The proofreading proofreading speed will often have a maximum number of errors per quantity of text and a minimum amount of time to find them. The goal of this approach is to identify those with the best skill set. A contrasting approach to testing is to identify and reward persistence more than an arbitrarily high level proofreading speed expertise.

For the spelling portion of the test, that can be accomplished by providing a dictionary, lengthening the word list conspicuously, and making clear that the test is not timed. For the proofreading portion, a suitable language-usage reference book e, proofreading speed. Note that knowing proofreading speed to find needed information in such specialized books is itself an effective component of the test.

Removing the pressure of what is essentially an ASAP deadline will identify those applicants with marginally greater reservoirs of persistence, stamina, and commitment. At the same time, by mooting proofreading speed need for applicants to make use of a memorized list of difficult words and a studied knowledge of the more common grammatical traps affect, effect, lay, lieapplicants learn that their success depends primarily on a quality at least theoretically available to anyone at any time without preparation.

Formal employee testing is usually planned and announced well in advance, and may have titles, such as Levels TestingSkills Evaluationetc. They are found in corporate or governmental environments with a large enough HR staff to devote to preparing and administering the tests. Proofreading speed employee testing takes place whenever a manager feels the need to take a random sampling of a proofreader's work by double-reading selected pages.

Usually, this is done without warning, and sometimes it will be done secretly. It can be highly effective, and there will certainly be times when such re-reading is justified, but care must be taken. There are two basic approaches. The first is to re-read a proof within its deadline and in the department itself.

Thus the manager will read from the same copy that the first reader saw, and be aware of any volume and deadline pressures the first reader was under, and can directly observe the individual in real time. This approach can also be followed as a matter of routine. The goal then is not to confirm a specific suspicion of poor job performance by a particular reader, but rather to confirm a general assumption that the proofreading staff needs ongoing monitoring.

The second approach to informal testing is to wait for some days or weeks and then, as time allows, randomly select proofs to re-read while outside the department. Such proofs may or may not be accompanied by the copy pages that the proofreader saw. Here the re-reader is examining the proof from the perspective of typographical and formatting accuracy alone, ignoring how many other pages the first reader had read that day, and had yet to read, and how many pages were successfully read and how many deadlines were met under a given day's specific conditions.

Proofreading cannot be fully cost-effective where volume or unpredictable workflow prevents proofreaders proofreading speed managing their own time, proofreading speed. Examples are newspapersthermographic trade printing of business cardsproofreading speed, and network hubs, proofreading speed.

The proofreading speed in each of these environments is that jobs cannot be put aside to be re-read as needed. In the first two cases, volumes and deadlines dictate that all jobs be finished as soon as possible; in the third case, proofreading speed, jobs presently on-site at the hub are hurried, regardless of their formal deadline, in favor of possible future work that may arrive unpredictably.

Where proofs can programmatically [ clarification needed ] be read only once, the quality will randomly but persistently fall below expectations. Even the best and most experienced readers will not be able to be consistently accurate enough to justify premium pay. Production technology can also moot the need to pay a premium for proofreading. In the example of thermographic business-card printing, even when there are no reprints, there is considerable wastage of paper and ink in preparing each of the press runs, which are separated by color.

When as often happens there is unused space available on the platethere is no increase in production cost for reprints that use that space, proofreading speed. Only when reprints are so numerous proofreading speed they push production staff into significant overtime would they increase costs. But significant overtime is usually the result of a high volume in new orders using up the eight-hour day.

In such industries proofreading need only — and can proofreading speed — make a marginal difference to be cost-effective. As for the customers, many will never return even when their jobs are perfect, and enough of those who do need a reprint will find the retailer's cost-saving price to be satisfactory enough to tolerate a late delivery.

Only where workload volume does not proofreading speed all deadlines to ASAP and the workflow is reasonably predictable can proofreading be worth a premium wage. Inflexible deadlines mandate a delivery time, but in doing so proofreading speed necessarily do not mandate delivery before that time.

If deadlines are consistently maintained instead of arbitrarily moved up, proofreaders can manage their own time by putting proofs aside at their own discretion for re-reading later. Whether the interval is a few seconds or overnight, it enables proofs to be viewed as both familiar and new, proofreading speed.

Where this procedure is followed, managers can expect consistently superior performance. However, re-reading focuses responsibility instead of dividing it as double-reading and copy holding, both described above, do and obviously requires extra effort from proofreaders and a measure of independence from management. Instead of managers controlling deadlines, deadlines control managers, and leeway is passed to the proofreaders as well as commensurate pay.

The term proofreading is sometimes used to refer to copy-editing, and vice versa. Although there is necessarily some overlap, proofreaders typically lack any real editorial or managerial authority. What they can do is mark queries for typesetters, editors, or authors.

To clarify matters at the outset, some advertised vacancies come with a notice that the job advertised is not a writing or editing position and will not become one. Creativity and critical thinking by their very nature conflict with the strict copy- following discipline that commercial and governmental proofreading requires. Thus proofreading and editing are fundamentally separate responsibilities. In contrast, copy editors focus on a sentence-by-sentence analysis of the text to "clean it up" by improving grammar, spelling, punctuation, syntax, and structure, proofreading speed.

The copy editor is usually the last editor that an author will work with. Copy editing focuses intensely on style, content, punctuation, grammarand consistency of usage, proofreading speed.

 

Free Sample Proofreading Tests, Free Sample Writing Tests, Free Sample Grammar Tests

 

proofreading speed

 

Proofreader applicants are tested primarily on their spelling, speed, and skill in finding errors in the sample text. Toward that end, they may be given a list of ten or twenty classically difficult words and a proofreading test, both tightly timed. Test yourself. Page owner: Standards director Anyone can be a proofreader, can't they? How hard can it be? All they do is find typos, don't they? See for yourself! Dec 03,  · see proofreading speed in my survey article Dec 3, I conducted a survey and wrote an article on this topic a few years which also contained info on editing/proofreading speeds.